Category Archives: CLIMATE CHANGE



We are about to look at the drastic increases in temperatures and sea levels that will alter the earth not just for centuries, but for millennia. Rob Wilder and Dan Kammen wrote an interesting commentary.

What we experienced in the latest hurricanes may well be a prelude to more monster hurricanes, Biblical rain events, and coastal inundations brought about by extreme weather and vastly higher sea levels. The higher temperatures of the oceans that cause hurricanes in the first place will not go away.

Humanity’s continuing failure to bring our enormous carbon emissions under control will have planet-altering impacts that could continue for hundreds of years.

The sea level increases we’re accustomed to seeing today — rising at 1.2 inches per decade is considerably faster than 50 years ago. The geological record indicates that seas might have risen in the distant past at truly astounding rates — one foot per decade for centuries. Nothing remotely like that has been known in recorded human history. Yet you can’t say that having happened before, that it won’t happen again.forever legacy climate change

The last two decades of the 20th century have been hottest in the last 400 years, according to climate studies, but this is only the beginning. Given current trends, keeping to the stated Paris Agreement goal of warming by no more than about 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) looks quite unlikely. Temperatures 7 to 10 degrees F hotter than today’s would wreak havoc with the oceans, agriculture, and, in the warmest parts of the world, go beyond human endurance.

 Global sea level rose about 8 inches in the last century, but this was only the beginning. Inertia in the climate system is enormous. The massive inertia in the climate system, which means changes in temperature and sea level, will go on and on long past the year 2100. If greenhouse gas emissions continue at roughly today’s levels for another century, that may mean that sea levels 500 years from now would be nearly 50 feet higher as the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets melt. That would mean losing large swaths of coastal areas worldwide. This is where the science takes us. forever legacy climate change

So what is the way out? If there were a simple path, we’d already be following it. Most countries are either, by default, choosing inaction or are moving far too slowly to make deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions.

 But as renewable energy experts, we believe climate change presents opportunities: for cleaner air, new industries, job growth, and stronger economies. This is already happening in Northern Europe as renewables are simply growing much more attractive than dirty fossil fuels. And we need initial government support for clean-energy industries, as well as long-term funding for research and development on renewable energy, energy efficiency, and battery technologies.

Many solutions are well-known and are readily at hand. The first step might be enacting simple and transparent carbon taxes that begin to reflect true current and long-term costs of dumping CO2 into the atmosphere

But without large-scale coordinated action on many levels across government, academia, and the private sector including the United States, our efforts to drastically cut emissions will fall far short of what chemistry and physics demand. The atmosphere and climate do not respond to hopes or aspirations.

It’s not easy for humans to look far into the future; we are accustomed to thinking that every mistake can be undone and that the earth is unchanging. But the stakes with climate change are uniquely so high, and the damages to the planet and society so enormous, that scientists, the press, politicians, and the public need to peer one century down the road and imagine what kind of world we will be leaving to our descendants.

The geological record shows that unless we rapidly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, we will be locking in drastic increases in temperatures and sea levels that will alter the earth not just for centuries, but for millennia.

11th HOUR





But there is barely any public discussion of how to bring about the extra “negative emissions” needed to reduce the stock of CO2 

Global levels of carbon emissions have skyrocketed in recent decades. Global emissions from all human activities will reach an all-time record 45 billion tons in 2017, following a projected 2% rise in burning fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal, the study revealed.

Sixty years ago, the world spewed only 9.2 billion tons per year.

TWO years ago the world pledged to keep global warming “well below” 2°C hotter than pre-industrial times. Climate scientists and campaigners purred. Politicians patted themselves on the backbiochar solutions

Setting unattainable emissions targets is not a policy — it’s an act of wishful thinking!

A focus on magical solutions leaves little room for the practical. When policy debate detaches from reality, up can become down in a hurry. For climate policy to succeed, it must move beyond magical solutions to those that actually work.

SWEDEN’S parliament passed a law which obliges the country to have “no net emissions” of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere by 2045. It demands that remaining carbon sources are offset with new carbon sinks. In other words greenhouse gases will need to be extracted from the air.


What they don’t tell you about climate change

Stopping the flow of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is not enough. It has to be sucked out, too

No scenarios are at all likely to keep warming under 1.5ºC without greenhouse-gas removal.NEGATIVE CARBON EMISSIONS

Climate scientists have been discussing negative-emissions technologies (NETs) with economists and policy wonks since the 1990s. But so far politicians have largely ignored the issue, preferring to focus on curbing current flows of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. NETs were conspicuous by their absence from the agenda of the annual UN climate jamboree which ended in Bonn on November 17, 2017.

Even the less speculative technologies need investment right away. Trees take decades to reach their carbon-sucking potential, so large-scale planting needs to start soon,

To have any hope of doing so, preparations for large-scale extraction ought to begin in the 2020s.

Modelers favor NETs that use plants because they are a tried and true technology. Reforesting logged areas or “afforesting” previously treeless ones presents no great technical challenges.

The problem with forestation and CCS is that the plants involved need a huge amount of land. The area estimated ranges from 3.2m square kilometers (roughly the size of India) to as much as 9.7m square kilometers (roughly the size of Canada). That is the equivalent of between 23% and 68% of the world’s arable land.

Any tree parts left over after lumber and paper-making processes can be dumped into landfills or into disused open cast mines. The carbon fixed by the biological processes which formed the trees could thus be sequestered underground.


In the same way, biochar can be produced, which helps soils absorb and retain more carbon instead of allowing it to dissipate into the air. The biochar system would be incorporated in the tree nursery project in Africa.

Globally, the commonly accepted biochar application rate is 1 to 5 tons per hectare of direct biochar application. This translates to a biochar compost application annual rate of about 2 to 10 tons per hectare.

According to researcher Bruno Glaser at the University of Bayreuth, Germany, a hectare of meter-deep terra preta can hold 250 tons of carbon, as opposed to 100 tons of carbon in unimproved soils. 


In addition, the bio-char itself increases soil fertility, which allows farmers to grow more plants, which allows more bio-char to be added to the soil. Johannes Lehman, author of Amazonian Dark Earths, claims that combining bio-char and bio-fuels could draw down 9.5 billion tons per year, or 35 Gt CO2 per year equal to all our current fossil fuel emissions.NEGATIVE CARBON EMISSIONS



To demonstrate the effectiveness of massive reforestation, the Black Death in the 1300’s and the catastrophic effects of European diseases on Native American populations resulted in massive reforestation of large parts of the world and contributed to the “little ice age”.

Living Water MicroFinance Inc. can arrange your partnership with an African landlord (who provides a long term lease) and a woman farmer and her family who will manage the 2.5 acre (1 Hectare) farm,  which  produces 560 fruit and nut trees and 560 tons of CO2 emission capture, which is sequestered over 25 years. Add 150 tons of CO2 emission capture from biochar farming. That adds up to over 700 tons/ha of CO2 emission capture. 

Removing 8bn-10bn tons by 2050, as the more sanguine scenarios envisage will require 143,000 km² @ 700tons/ha. which is 5% of India.biochar solutions

Combining bio-char and bio-fuels could draw down 9.5 billion tons per year, or 35 Gt CO2 per year (@ 150 tons/ha of CO2 emission capture).

Add to this the 560 tons/ha of CO2 emission capture from orchard trees over 25 years. This will raise the potential to  35 billion tons per year.


So far there are only 17 CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) programs big enough to dispose of around 1m tons of carbon dioxide a year. Promoting CCS is an uphill struggle, mainly because it doubles the cost of energy from the dirty power plants whose flues it scrubs.


In 2011 a review by the American Physical Society put extraction costs above $600 per ton, compared with an average estimate of $60-250 per ton for CCS. Removing 8bn-10bn tons by 2050, as the more sanguine scenarios envisage, let alone the 35bn-40bn tons in more pessimistic ones, will be a vast undertaking. For all low-carbon technologies, it puts the figure at $65bn a year until 2050. A chunk of this fund must go toward NET.

One way to create a market for NETs would be for governments to put a price on carbon. Take Norway, which in 1991 told oil firms drilling in the North Sea to capture carbon dioxide from their operations or pay up. This cost is now around $50 per ton emitted.


Wind power is profitable today as a result of decades of government investment in the United States and Europe. Nobody knows how to get rich simply by removing greenhouse gases. When the need is great, the science is nascent and commercial incentives are missing, the task falls to government and private foundations. But they are falling short.

Subsidies are another option. Without them, renewables would have taken longer to compete with fossil fuels. Governments could offer a reward for every ton of CO2 that is extracted and stored. In theory such a bounty should be paid from a fund bankrolled by countries according to their cumulative historical emissions (top comes America followed by Europe, with China rapidly closing the gap). In practice no mechanism exists to get them to cough up.

Earlier this year Britain’s government became the first to set aside some cash specifically for NETs research. In October America’s Department of Energy announced a series of grants for “novel and enabling” carbon-capture technologies, some of which could help in the development of schemes for direct air capture.

Richard Branson, a British tycoon, has offered $25m to whoever first comes up with a “commercially viable design” that would remove 1bn tonnes of greenhouse gases a year for ten years. Mr Branson’s prize has gone unclaimed for a decade.

The fossil-fuel industry says it is committed to the technology. Total, a French oil giant, has promised to spend a tenth of its $600m research budget on CCS and related technologies. A group of oil majors says it will spend up to $500m on similar projects between now and 2027. But the field’s slow progress to date hardly encourages optimism. Governments’ commitment to CCS has historically proved fickle.

CLIMATE economists refer to it as “the most important number you’ve never heard of”. The social cost of carbon (SCC) tries to capture the cost of an additional ton of carbon-dioxide pollution in a single number—around $47 in present dollars. Using it, more than $1trn worth of benefits has been calculated in economic-impact assessments that accompany environmental regulations. But the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under President Trump has developed a new calculations place it anywhere between $1 and $6—a cut of between 87% and 98%.


Agroforestry could help solve Climate Change.


New Trees are the only solution to soaking up Carbon Dioxide:

tree growth

A Full Scale Aquaponic Tree Nursery in Africa supported by:

  • A Micro Hydro Electric System: no dams:
  • An Irrigation System:
  • Deliverance Is:
  • An Agroforestry Inter crop System:
  • The Charitable Arm:
  • God’s Loveletters:
  • Thunder of Justice:


    Stage 1     Agricultural Mechanization of Africa                        
    Stage 2   Today’s Tall Trees Nursery: Carbon Tax Fund 
    Stage 3   Micro Finance & Landlord Cooperatives 
    Stage 4   Irrigation in Remote Areas using kinetic energy from moving water.
    Stage 5   Electricity Created in Remote Areas using moving water without the use of a dam.