CARBON EMISSIONS

NEGATIVE CARBON EMISSIONS 2

THE FOLLY OF ‘MAGICAL SOLUTIONS’

But there is barely any public discussion of how to bring about the extra “negative emissions” needed to reduce the stock of CO2 

Global levels of carbon emissions have skyrocketed in recent decades. Global emissions from all human activities will reach an all-time record 45 billion tons in 2017, following a projected 2% rise in burning fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal, the study revealed.

Sixty years ago, the world spewed only 9.2 billion tons per year.

TWO years ago the world pledged to keep global warming “well below” 2°C hotter than pre-industrial times. Climate scientists and campaigners purred. Politicians patted themselves on the backbiochar solutions

Setting unattainable emissions targets is not a policy — it’s an act of wishful thinking!

A focus on magical solutions leaves little room for the practical. When policy debate detaches from reality, up can become down in a hurry. For climate policy to succeed, it must move beyond magical solutions to those that actually work.

SWEDEN’S parliament passed a law which obliges the country to have “no net emissions” of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere by 2045. It demands that remaining carbon sources are offset with new carbon sinks. In other words greenhouse gases will need to be extracted from the air.

NEGATIVE-EMISSIONS TECHNOLOGY (NET)

What they don’t tell you about climate change

Stopping the flow of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is not enough. It has to be sucked out, too

No scenarios are at all likely to keep warming under 1.5ºC without greenhouse-gas removal.NEGATIVE CARBON EMISSIONS

Climate scientists have been discussing negative-emissions technologies (NETs) with economists and policy wonks since the 1990s. But so far politicians have largely ignored the issue, preferring to focus on curbing current flows of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. NETs were conspicuous by their absence from the agenda of the annual UN climate jamboree which ended in Bonn on November 17, 2017.

Even the less speculative technologies need investment right away. Trees take decades to reach their carbon-sucking potential, so large-scale planting needs to start soon,

To have any hope of doing so, preparations for large-scale extraction ought to begin in the 2020s.

Modelers favor NETs that use plants because they are a tried and true technology. Reforesting logged areas or “afforesting” previously treeless ones presents no great technical challenges.

The problem with forestation and CCS is that the plants involved need a huge amount of land. The area estimated ranges from 3.2m square kilometers (roughly the size of India) to as much as 9.7m square kilometers (roughly the size of Canada). That is the equivalent of between 23% and 68% of the world’s arable land.

Any tree parts left over after lumber and paper-making processes can be dumped into landfills or into disused open cast mines. The carbon fixed by the biological processes which formed the trees could thus be sequestered underground.

THE BIOCHAR SOLUTION OVERLOOKEDbiochar solutions

In the same way, biochar can be produced, which helps soils absorb and retain more carbon instead of allowing it to dissipate into the air. The biochar system would be incorporated in the tree nursery project in Africa.

Globally, the commonly accepted biochar application rate is 1 to 5 tons per hectare of direct biochar application. This translates to a biochar compost application annual rate of about 2 to 10 tons per hectare.

According to researcher Bruno Glaser at the University of Bayreuth, Germany, a hectare of meter-deep terra preta can hold 250 tons of carbon, as opposed to 100 tons of carbon in unimproved soils. 

THAT MEANS THAT THERE IS A POTENTIAL  OF 150 TONS OF CARBON CAPTURE/ HA POSSIBLE. (THIS DOES NOT INCLUDE THE FORESTATION ON THE SAME HECTARE)

In addition, the bio-char itself increases soil fertility, which allows farmers to grow more plants, which allows more bio-char to be added to the soil. Johannes Lehman, author of Amazonian Dark Earths, claims that combining bio-char and bio-fuels could draw down 9.5 billion tons per year, or 35 Gt CO2 per year equal to all our current fossil fuel emissions.NEGATIVE CARBON EMISSIONS

SUSTAINABLE BIOCHAR AND GLOBAL WARMING 2

MASSIVE REFORESTATION

To demonstrate the effectiveness of massive reforestation, the Black Death in the 1300’s and the catastrophic effects of European diseases on Native American populations resulted in massive reforestation of large parts of the world and contributed to the “little ice age”.

Living Water MicroFinance Inc. can arrange your partnership with an African landlord (who provides a long term lease) and a woman farmer and her family who will manage the 2.5 acre (1 Hectare) farm,  which  produces 560 fruit and nut trees and 560 tons of CO2 emission capture, which is sequestered over 25 years. Add 150 tons of CO2 emission capture from biochar farming. That adds up to over 700 tons/ha of CO2 emission capture. 

Removing 8bn-10bn tons by 2050, as the more sanguine scenarios envisage will require 143,000 km² @ 700tons/ha. which is 5% of India.biochar solutions

Combining bio-char and bio-fuels could draw down 9.5 billion tons per year, or 35 Gt CO2 per year (@ 150 tons/ha of CO2 emission capture).

Add to this the 560 tons/ha of CO2 emission capture from orchard trees over 25 years. This will raise the potential to  35 billion tons per year.

SEVEN BILLION TREES 2

So far there are only 17 CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) programs big enough to dispose of around 1m tons of carbon dioxide a year. Promoting CCS is an uphill struggle, mainly because it doubles the cost of energy from the dirty power plants whose flues it scrubs.

NEGATIVE THINKING

In 2011 a review by the American Physical Society put extraction costs above $600 per ton, compared with an average estimate of $60-250 per ton for CCS. Removing 8bn-10bn tons by 2050, as the more sanguine scenarios envisage, let alone the 35bn-40bn tons in more pessimistic ones, will be a vast undertaking. For all low-carbon technologies, it puts the figure at $65bn a year until 2050. A chunk of this fund must go toward NET.

One way to create a market for NETs would be for governments to put a price on carbon. Take Norway, which in 1991 told oil firms drilling in the North Sea to capture carbon dioxide from their operations or pay up. This cost is now around $50 per ton emitted.

EVERYTHING AND THE CARBON SINK

Wind power is profitable today as a result of decades of government investment in the United States and Europe. Nobody knows how to get rich simply by removing greenhouse gases. When the need is great, the science is nascent and commercial incentives are missing, the task falls to government and private foundations. But they are falling short.

Subsidies are another option. Without them, renewables would have taken longer to compete with fossil fuels. Governments could offer a reward for every ton of CO2 that is extracted and stored. In theory such a bounty should be paid from a fund bankrolled by countries according to their cumulative historical emissions (top comes America followed by Europe, with China rapidly closing the gap). In practice no mechanism exists to get them to cough up.

Earlier this year Britain’s government became the first to set aside some cash specifically for NETs research. In October America’s Department of Energy announced a series of grants for “novel and enabling” carbon-capture technologies, some of which could help in the development of schemes for direct air capture.

Richard Branson, a British tycoon, has offered $25m to whoever first comes up with a “commercially viable design” that would remove 1bn tonnes of greenhouse gases a year for ten years. Mr Branson’s prize has gone unclaimed for a decade.

The fossil-fuel industry says it is committed to the technology. Total, a French oil giant, has promised to spend a tenth of its $600m research budget on CCS and related technologies. A group of oil majors says it will spend up to $500m on similar projects between now and 2027. But the field’s slow progress to date hardly encourages optimism. Governments’ commitment to CCS has historically proved fickle.

CLIMATE economists refer to it as “the most important number you’ve never heard of”. The social cost of carbon (SCC) tries to capture the cost of an additional ton of carbon-dioxide pollution in a single number—around $47 in present dollars. Using it, more than $1trn worth of benefits has been calculated in economic-impact assessments that accompany environmental regulations. But the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under President Trump has developed a new calculations place it anywhere between $1 and $6—a cut of between 87% and 98%.

MORE DETAILS:

Agroforestry could help solve Climate Change.

HELPING SOLVE WORLD’S CARBON POLLUTION

New Trees are the only solution to soaking up Carbon Dioxide:

tree growth

A Full Scale Aquaponic Tree Nursery in Africa supported by:


  • A Micro Hydro Electric System: no dams:
    HugENERGY.us
  • An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
  • Deliverance Is: DeliveranceIs.com
  • An Agroforestry Inter crop System: LivingWaterIs.com
  • The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
  • God’s Loveletters:  Godloveletters.com
  • Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
  • https://twitter.com/roaudet

    OUR STRATEGY

    Stage 1     Agricultural Mechanization of Africa                        
    Stage 2   Today’s Tall Trees Nursery: Carbon Tax Fund 
    Stage 3   Micro Finance & Landlord Cooperatives 
    Stage 4   Irrigation in Remote Areas using kinetic energy from moving water.
    Stage 5   Electricity Created in Remote Areas using moving water without the use of a dam.

ASTONISHING PREDICTIONS

God divinely inspired the BIBLE . How do we know? Each of eight accurate predictions  show a high probability mathematically. The probability of one individual fulfilling eight prophecies have odds of 1 in 10 17  (1 in 100,000,000,000,000,000). Jesus Christ fulfilled all prophecies, therefore the Bible MUST BE TRUE. 

DIVINE OR HUMAN CALIPHS

The Old Testament indicates another 40 astonishing predictions.

CHINA DECEASED RELATIVES

Christianity experiences stunning growth—from approximately 3.8 million adherents in 1956 to an estimated 87 to 100 million Christians today in China.

CHINA AND THE HOLY SPIRIT

In the end, one Christian conversion will benefit the whole family.  The gifts of the Holy Spirit of healing and deliverance will help the whole family. A prayer of deliverance of evil spirits will leave any member of the Chinese family with a complete sense of peace immediately. A prayer of healing from a Christian disciple produces 80% healing. The remaining healing comes from continued prayer of praise and thanksgiving until all the healing is complete. This healing comes from the Holy Spirit through the power in the Name of Jesus Christ.  No other god or deity or doctor uses this power. This proves the TRUTH OF CHRISTIANITY. 

Christianity and Hinduism Differences

BILLIONS OF CHRISTIANS CAN’ T ALL BE WRONG!

Christianity is not a philosophy, but it is  a relationship with God, your Creator,  in Christ TODAY. It is not knowledge of abstract principles.  How do we know this? Healing takes place TODAY in the Name of Jesus Christ. 

GOD’S HEALING ASSURED 2

 HEALING?

 Many Christian disciples use the gift of healing.  They also use deliverance to deliver away evil spirits influencing people. These evil spirits cause depression, addictions and illness through all forms of stress.  Only the Name of Jesus Christ makes healing and deliverance possible.Chinese Religion God

AN EXPERIMENT OF GOD’S TOUCH 2

HOW IS JESUS STILL ALIVE TODAY?

Jesus is alive today! He heals today (through His followers) and in many cases it is realized immediately. How else can you explain the explosion of Christianity, the world’s largest religion, on earth: 2.2 billion adherents, nearly a third (31 percent) of all 6.9 billion people on Earth. 

Christians know and feel His Presence; they communicate with Him personally; Christian prayers are always answered.

This author has been given the Gift of Healing only because he is a Christian Lay Missionary, who travels  two to three places every year. On his last trip to Columbia he successfully transferred his Gift to his Spanish translators, who were able to heal as he did. He has healed Muslims to their great surprise.

He also delivers away evil spirits along with their healing. All those who are delivered from evil spirits feel a complete physical  sense of peace.

DREAMS AND VISIONS

God can give a message to those non-Christians to change their heart.  God knows faith will be developed eventually. God will come to you in the form of dreams or visions. So be sensitive to any dreams or visions, when you ask God for it earnestly.

NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES

PROOF OF HEAVEN 2

Is the BIBLE true? 2

HAVE YOU EVER WONDERED HOW TO BECOME A CHRISTIAN?

god proof

  • Christians don’t shout, “I live a clean life!” Christians whisper “I feel  lost, but now God found me and God forgives me.” 
  • Christians don’t speak with pride. They confess that they stumble and need Christ to be their guide.
  • Christians don’t say,” I’m strong.” They say they try to be strong because they need strength. 
  • Christians don’t brag about success, but they admit that they fail and they need God to clean the mess.
  • Christians don’t claim to be perfect, but God still believes in them.
  • Christians still feel the sting of pain. They have their share of headaches but they still call upon His Name.
  • Christians are not holier than others. They are simple sinners who receive God’s unbelievable Grace.

Christianity on a Table Napkin:

Deliverance EVIL SPIRITS

“If you declare with your mouth, ‘Jesus is Lord,’ and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.”                                                                                                                                     Romans 10:9

The real Jesus is the Christ, the Son of the Living God. He was send by God to come to the earth in the body of a human being. That was, so that He could suffer in the flesh, and take all our sins upon Himself and die in our place. He rose from the dead and lives to pray for us daily.
He is the Savior – The angel announced to Mary; …and you shall call His name JESUS: for He shall save His people from their sins.     Matthew 1:21  It means He has the power to free us, save us and deliver us from sin. He is merciful and has the power to forgive. He brings good news to the poor, heals the heart-broken, announce freedom to all captives, pardons all prisoners. He comforts mourners. He has healing in His hands.
To receive Jesus as your Savior… SAY:

Lord Jesus, You are the Christ, the Son of the Living God. Please hear me today and help me! I want to receive You as my Lord and Savior. Be Lord of my life!  Lord Jesus, I believe that You died for me and that God raised You from the dead. Forgive me all my sins and take all my sins away. Come into my heart and be my Savior and Lord, and fill me with Your Holy Spirit. Amen
Your life will begin to change in an amazing way. Without expecting  anything, be sensitive to any dreams or visions. 

God the Father will wipe every tear from our eyes, and there shall be no more death or mourning, crying out or pain. We will be like Him, for we will see Him as He is The Holy Spirit will have made all things new. Eternal joy will begin.  “For the Mighty One has done great things for me— holy is His name.”                                                     Luke 1: 49

Are we not like Barabbas who was justly condemned for murder, but saved by the innocent Jesus on the cross? Are we not like the adulterous woman, deserving of death by stoning, to whom Jesus says, “I do not condemn you”?  And Jesus saved them both. In fact, Jesus came to earth specifically to look for and save those who were lost, like you.

“Come now, let us settle the matter,” says the LORD, “Though your sins are like scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they are red as crimson, they shall be like wool”.                                       Isaiah 1:18

You may need some counseling with a pastor, priest or competent Christian worker, who will introduce you to a Short Course on Who is Jesus? Start by reading a short biography of Jesus in  the Gospel of Luke. Read several verses before going to bed and read the same verse upon arising.  He will defend you from attacks of the enemy when you ask Him.

Healing and Deliverance                                                 (Ctrl + Click to follow Link)

G O D ‘ S   L O V E L E T T E R S

The BEST of GOD’S LOVELETTERS

FREE  
God’s
Loveletters

God’s Peace & Anxiety

Ambassadors of Christ

Think Good Health Secret- Staying in Love Blessing of Grace

I ask God in Prayer.

God’s Love

The Magic of Enthusiasm

Faith- Magic of Believing

The Easter Celebration The Christmas Celebration The First Communion
Healing & Growth Healing & Prayer

Healing & the Spirit

The Baptism Celebration

HEALTH RENEWED

The Kingdom of God

Gifts of the Holy Spirit

Hope in ADVANCED STAGES

I Can Do it with GOD’S Help.

Blessing of Illness

Shaking the Blues

Marriage – Fanning the Flame

Christian Meditation

One Day at a TIME

The Lord is my Partner. Hope & Trust Prescription for Heartache Overcoming Worry Praise the Lord Keep up Your Spirits

Raising my Self-Esteem

OTHER IMPORTANT LINKS:

  1. A Micro Hydro Electric System: no dams: HugENERGY.us
  2. An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
  3. A Rabbit and Fish Farm: AfriCAPITALISM.us
  4. An Agroforestry Intercrop System: LivingWaterIs.com
  5. The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
  6. Living Water Micro Finance: LivingWaterMicroFinance.org
  7. Deliverance Is: DeliveranceIs.com
  8.  God Love Letters: GodLoverLetters.com

     https://twitter.com/roaudet

 

SAINTS IN HEAVEN HEAR OUR PRAYERS?

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